How to Compost Inside or Outside: A Guide to Getting Started
Pop quiz: what's something that only a quarter of Americans do that helps the environment, reduces waste, and creates a valuable by-product? Hopefully you guessed the answer: it’s compost! The process of composting food scraps quite literally turns everyone’s trash into treasure, and it’s something anyone can do—even those of you who live in an apartment.
The US claims first place on a very undesirable list: first in the world for food waste—we clock in at 80 billion pounds per year, a third of annual food production. Food that can naturally decompose in the right conditions can’t break down in the anaerobic environment of a landfill, so instead it contributes to the production of greenhouse gases like methane, accounting for 6% of global emissions. Though the US has been slow to adopt composting programs (South Korea leads the way with a high-tech system that charges residents by weight of scraps), a recent study found that although 72% of Americans don’t compost, more than half of those who don’t would if there were convenient ways to do so.
Here’s a handy guide to composting no matter where you live.
Step 1: Choose your bin, based on your space
If you have outdoor space, you can use one of two types of bins: those that allow the food to come into contact with the ground, or tumbling bins that make for easy turning. Both options take up less than 10 square feet of space, and can be lidded and locked to avoid attracting critters. Open-bottom bins work best on a lawn, while tumblers are best for balconies or roofs.
Those without outdoor space can still compost—you’ll just need somewhere to drop it off. Keep any kind of container (even a plastic bag!) in the freezer, which keeps food scraps from becoming smelly and attracting pests. You can also keep a lidded bucket with a compostable liner on the counter or in a cabinet. To make sure you drop off regularly, link the task to another weekly chore, such as grocery shopping, or use a pick-up service (we have a list below). Diehard composters can try vermicomposting, which you can do in an apartment; learn more about that here.
No matter where you’re composting, diverting food scraps will dramatically reduce the size and yuck-factor of your regular trash can.
Step 2: Know what you can and can’t compost
For full-cycle at-home composters, the first thing to understand about compost is that it takes a LOT of scraps to make a little of the fully broken down “black gold”, so there won’t be a huge amount to spread out—it can take years to fill an outdoor bin. Most of the produce you’re adding has a high water content, and that’s the first thing to go.
Also important for home composters to know: the importance of adding a balance of “greens” (nitrogen containing, wet components) and browns (mostly carbon, dry components). This doesn’t have to be super precise, just make sure to add some browns if things seem to be slimy when you dump them in or occasionally if it’s looking too damp. You can also add water if things are dry, or if you add too many browns at once. (If you’re dropping off your compost, the facility will make sure to balance as needed.)
There are some things that you shouldn’t compost:
- Meat and dairy: bones don’t break down quickly enough, and both of these food groups can throw off the pH of your system and cause bad odors
- Produce stickers or labels
Step 3: Dispose your compost at home, at a drop-off point, or using a service
Here’s where to dispose of your compost if you won’t be keeping it to turn into your own soil (excerpted from Litterless):
- Apex Organix: Curbside food scrap collection, plus zero-waste event service.
- Compost Cab: A weekly compost pickup service that delivers a composting kit with a collection bin and liner to your door
- Compost Crew: Offers weekly compost pickups in provided bins (they'll also service apartment buildings)
- Department of Public Works Food Waste Drop-Off: Find a food scrap drop-off here
- Dupont Farmers' Market: Drop off site for food scraps
- Key Compost: Commercial food scrap and organics collection service
- Neighborhood compost cooperatives: DC Parks and Recreation manages compost drop-off programs at or near community gardens. Find one near you here.
- MOM's Organic Market: This local grocery store chain has a compost drop-off bin open to the public for household compost only (no commercial or high-volume compost)
- Veteran Compost: Residential food-scrap collection, organic waste drop-off, and composting support for events
Litterless has resources for every state (quick links for DC, Maryland, and Virginia).
Step 4: Lead the charge
Composting is something you can do on an individual level, but it’s also important that we encourage the practice to trickle up to our places of work, schools, restaurants, churches, communities, and businesses. (Did you know V+B will take back used meal containers to compost if you can’t compost them yourself?)
There are so many ways you can influence others to take part in this important, naturally beneficial cycle—the next time you’re at your favorite coffee shop or restaurant, ask how they deal with food waste and scraps, or see if other members of your neighborhood or complex would be interested in creating a communal composting area. There’s even a certificate course you can take in DC to learn more.
Sarah Waybright, MS, RD, CLT is the owner of WhyFoodWorks and was the first team dietitian for Vegetable and Butcher.